High strength glass-ceramics fabricated 0.with coal gangue as raw materials
Fabrication of glass-ceramics with waste mineral materials is challenging issue for synthetically managing environmental pollution and also economic in view of serving resources. In this work, high strength lightweight glass-ceramics were fabricated with coal gangue and clay as main raw materials. The utilization ratio of coal gangue, the ratio of the coal gangue with clay, mineralization agents, forming process and sintering process on the properties of the fabricated glass-ceramics were optimized. The utilization ratio of coal gangue reached 75, whereas the ratio of coal gangue to clay was 3/1, as an optimal property appeared. The optimal sintering temperature was 1370 ℃. At this optimal temperature, the sintered glass-ceramics showed the main phase of mullite and spindle and so showed high strength, low density, and low water absorbance. The appropriate amounts of codoping of TiO2, ZnO, and MnO2/dolomite as mineralization agents obviously enhanced the properties of the glass-ceramics, leading to an optimal strength of ~187.67 MPa, minimal water absorption of ~0 % and lower density of 1.83 g/cm3. The grain size of raw materials, drying temperature and time of wet-milled raw materials, forming pressure, and sintering time also had influences on the properties of the fabricated glass-ceramics. Process optimizations further determined reasonable and optimal process parameters of forming and sintering. The high strength lightweight glass-ceramics fabricated in this work may be very suitable for various applications including building materials, cooking ceramics, and proppant materials, et al.
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